May 10, 2017

Fields within Marketing

People who are interested in marketing careers may find a wide variety of fields within marketing from which to choose. The United States Department of Labor; Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2011 Occupational Outlook Handbook says the following about advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations and sales managers: “Keen competition is expected for these highly coveted jobs. College graduates with related experience, a high level of creativity, and strong communications and computer skills should have the best job opportunities. High earnings, substantial travel, and long hours, including evenings and weekends, are common. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, these managers often are prime candidates for advancement to the highest ranks.”

Fields within marketing include those like media coordinators and media buyers who deal with print, internet, and television media. Market research directors and analysts may have highly technical jobs that require the use of statistical models combined with a keen understanding of human psychology. Public relations specialists may work with clients to develop positive impressions of the client or to overcome negative events that may harm the client’s image and reduce sales or popularity. Advertising sales directors may focus mostly on selling advertising services to clients and may work with teams to produce presentations concerning advertising campaigns for clients to consider. Product development managers work on new products from the initial concept to marketing the fully developed product.

These and other fields provide a range of opportunities for people to use a marketing degree and the skills developed in their work to advance both professionally and into higher level management opportunities. There are opportunities to be creative and opportunities to do solid quantitative research, whatever is most appealing to marketing professionals.

Media Coordinator

Those interested in marketing careers may wish to consider a position as a media coordinator. There are several types of positions that may be called media coordinator. One way to discover the types of work done by media coordinators is to look at advertised positions. At the website, an advertisement for a “fast-growing financial publishing firm” seeking an experienced media coordinator describes the following qualities that the firm is looking for: “1) Must be networked with financial media outlets such as CNBC, Bloomberg, Fox Business , etc. 2) Must be proficient at scheduling media appearances and providing publicity for financial analysts. 3) Ability to manage several market analysts’ TV and radio appearances. 4) Handle the online publishing of media appearances. 5) Manage press releases. 6) Manage social networking website communication.”

The advertisement goes on to say that the full-time position offers a salary from $45,000 to $80,000. This also provides the ability to work from home, an “energetic and inspired work environment, and high growth potential.”

In North Carolina, the State Board of Education has developed a job description titled media coordinator that is very different from that described above. “In North Carolina, the library media coordinator may be identified by a variety of titles, such as librarian, library teacher, or media coordinator.”

According to the job description, the media coordinator reports to the principal and media supervisor and supervises the activities of school library media support personnel. The purpose of this position is “to provide leadership and instructional resources and services for the implementation of the media program that serves as an integral part of a student-centered educational process.”

In this role the media coordinator has more to do with what types of media are needed to facilitate teaching and learning including print and electronic resources in the school media center and through remote access. One duty more specifically related to marketing is: “Leads the Media and Technology Advisory Committee in effective decision making to promote the school library media program.”

In either type of media coordinator position, a significant portion of the work requires being able to work effectively with people to accomplish a goal. Strong communication skills, ability to plan and organize work effectively, and the ability to accomplish goals within specified deadlines are all needed to be successful as a media coordinator. Interestingly, the ability to manage and make use of the social networking media like Facebook and Twitter are also needed for the media coordinator who is involved in public relations activities.

Market Research Director

The website lists a number of market research director jobs that provide an idea of the nature of these types of marketing careers. One position listed as of May 14, 2011 is that of a market research director for company Prescription Solutions. This position reports to the marketing vice president.

The job duties are extensive and include the following:

  1. Direct and manage data analytics and a team of 12 direct reports.
  2. Set team direction, resolves problems and provides guidance to team members.
  3. Manage and balance effective workloads.
  4. Troubleshoot problems and creates best practice solutions.
  5. Ensure campaigns are built correctly.
  6. Utilize data to make strategic recommendations to consumer marketing and business marketing groups.
  7. Prepare, distribute, and analyze all reports for campaigns for group (sales, marketing and Diabetes Active Care).
  8. Responsible for all segmentation efforts of company related to mail service.
  9. Adapts departmental plans and priorities to address business and operational challenges.
  10. Provides input to forecasting and planning activities.
  11. Prepares and presents analytical data to effectuate efficiencies.

The qualifications required for this position are also extensive.

  1. Bachelor’s degree or equivalent.
  2. Proven leadership experience.
  3. Demonstrated success in project management.
  4. 3+ years of work experience within the health care space
  5. Ability to document and communicate user needs in professional and efficient manner.
  6. Ability to analyze complex business situations and develop innovative solutions.
  7. Strong written, verbal, and presentation skills.”

On the same site, a market research manager/director position is advertised (May 14, 2011) for KForce Finance & Accounting Staffing. The duties and responsibilities for this position are quite different than those above.

  1. Source and manage primary research vendors by defining research objective, design of study, and providing the stimulus needed to execute study.
  2. Presenting and development of customer pitch utilizing relevant research studies, including collaborating with customers on joint research studies.
  3. Presenting research results to the internal parties and provide key proof points in support of sales materials to be used by the sales team.
  4. Marketing support by performing secondary and internet research as well as provide expertise utilizing Datamonitor, Meltwater news, or any other new subscription services.”

This position requires these qualifications: “Manufacturing and or distribution experience is required and candidates must understand and/or have knowledge of

  1. ANU—attitude and usage study.
  2. Focus groups.
  3. CLT—controlled location tests.
  4. IHUT—in-house use test.
  5. DCM—discreet choice modeling.”

A quick survey of salaries on this website indicates that market research directors may earn from about $75,000 to $146,000 annually. Some of the positions include the possibility of bonuses. Normally they would also provide benefits like healthcare insurance and retirement benefits.

Public Relations Specialist

The United States Department of Labor; Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2011 Occupational Outlook Handbook has a section titled Public Relations Specialists that describes these types of marketing careers: “Public relations specialists—also referred to as communications specialists and media specialists, among other titles—serve as advocates for clients seeking to build and maintain positive relationships with the public. Their clients include businesses, nonprofit associations, universities, hospitals, and other organizations.”

The site goes on to say: “Public relations specialists handle organizational functions, such as media, community, consumer, industry, and governmental relations; political campaigns; interest-group representation; conflict mediation; and employee and investor relations. Public relations specialists must understand the attitudes and concerns of community, consumer, employee, and public interest groups to establish and maintain cooperative relationships between them and representatives from print and broadcast journalism.

“Public relations specialists draft press releases and contact people in the media who might print or broadcast their material. Many radio or television special reports, newspaper stories, and magazine articles start at the desks of public relations specialists. Sometimes, the subject of a press release is an organization and its policies toward employees or its role in the community. For example, a press release might describe a public issue, such as health, energy, or the environment, and what an organization does to advance that issue.”

The site goes on to say that government public relations specialists may be called press secretaries and that in large organizations a key public relations specialist may participate with other executives to develop overall plans and policies. Public relations specialists in small organizations may handle all aspects of the job, including contacting people, planning and researching issues, and preparing materials to distribute.

According to the site, most public relations specialists work in busy offices with tight work schedules and often in stressful environments. Overtime is common, and sometimes a specialist may be on-call for a 24-hour period during a crisis.

The 2011 Occupational Outlook Handbook indicates that entry-level public relations specialists often have a college degree in public relations, journalism, marketing, or communications. Some firms are looking for graduates with experience in electronic or print journalism. Other employers seek candidates with “demonstrated communication skills and training or experience in a field related to the firm’s business—information technology, health care, science, engineering, sales or finance…Courses in advertising, business administration, finance, political science, psychology, sociology, and creative writing also are helpful.”

The site indicates that internships in public relations not only provide students with valuable experience but are often the best way to find an entry-level position. Also membership in the Public Relations Student Society of America may lead to networking opportunities that could provide contacts for those seeking employment.

The site lists other qualifications: “In addition to the ability to communicate thoughts clearly and simply, public relations specialists must show creativity, initiative, and good judgment. Decision- making, problem-solving, and research skills also are important. People who choose public relations as a career should have an outgoing personality, self-confidence, an understanding of human psychology, and an enthusiasm for motivating people. They should be assertive but able to participate as part of a team and be open to new ideas.”

In terms of employment growth, the site indicates that this field is expected to grow much faster than average, but keen competition is expected for entry-level jobs. Median annual wages for salaried public relations specialists were $51,280 in May 2008. Salaries in colleges and universities averaged $46,600 while those in company management were $55,530.

Advertising Sales Director

One of the marketing careers that enables people to advance into a management-level position is that of an advertising sales director. The United States Department of Labor; Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2011 Occupational Outlook Handbook has a section titled: Advertising, Marketing, Promotions, Public Relations, and Sales Managers. According to the site, “Advertising managers direct a firm’s or group’s advertising and promotional campaign. They can be found in advertising agencies that put together advertising campaigns for clients, in media firms that sell advertising space or time, and in companies that advertise heavily. They work with sales staff and others to generate ideas for the campaign, oversee a creative staff that develops the advertising, and work with the finance department to prepare a budget and cost estimates for the campaign. Often, these managers serve as liaisons between the firm requiring the advertising and an advertising or promotion agency that actually develops and places the ads. In larger firms with an extensive advertising department, different advertising managers may oversee in-house accounts and creative and media services departments. The account executive manages account services departments in companies and assesses the need for advertising.”

Advertising sales directors may manage several advertising sales managers and work with them to develop potential campaigns and present them to clients. Some clients may seek proposals from several advertising firms and evaluate the campaigns and services offered by each firm before making a decision. In large companies, directors usually do not create the campaigns or prepare the presentations directly, but work through other managers to accomplish the work. These managers may have teams of people who provide creative and analytical talent. For this reason, the job of the sales director may be more administrative in nature. However, advertising sales directors may personally present proposals to larger clients, and may also be the primary contact for these larger clients.

The 2011 Occupational Outlook Handbook site indicates that like other managers in marketing careers, working long hours and under high stress is common. Also the site says: “Substantial travel may be required in order to meet with customers and consult with others in the industry…Advertising and promotions managers may travel to meet with clients or representatives of communications media…Long hours including evenings and weekends are common.”

The site states that: “For marketing, sales, and promotions management positions, employers often prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in business administration with an emphasis on marketing. Courses in business law, management, economics, accounting, finance, mathematics, and statistics are advantageous. In addition the completion of an internship while the candidate is in school is highly recommended. In highly technical industries, such as computer and electronics manufacturing, a bachelor’s degree in engineering or science, combined with a master’s degree in business administration, is preferred…Persons interested in becoming advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers should be mature, creative, highly motivated, resistant to stress, flexible, and decisive. These managers also need tact, good judgment, and exceptionally ability to establish and maintain effective personal relationship with supervisory and professional staff members and client firms.”

According to the Handbook site, even though there has been a sharp decline in the number of advertising agencies, newspaper, and periodical publishers, little or no change in employment rates is expected for the next 10 years. Median annual earnings in May 2008 were $80,220 for advertising and promotions managers. Typically the salary for directors would be higher than those for managers. Advertising sales directors may also participate in bonuses based on client acquisition and retention.

Media Buyer

There are a number of marketing careers that are found in large advertising firms. These firms may prepare campaigns and advertisements for other companies that do not have the staff or expertise to develop effective advertising. One type of marketing career is that of a media buyer. According to the United States Department of Labor; Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2011 Occupational Outlook Handbook website: “Media buyers track the media space and times available for purchase, negotiate and purchase time and space for ads, and make sure ads appear exactly as scheduled. Additionally, they calculate rates, usage, and budgets.”

The site goes on to say: “A firm that purchases advertising time (or space) from media outlets, thereafter reselling it to advertising agencies or individual companies directly, is considered a media buying agency. Divisions of companies that produce and place their own advertising are not considered part of this industry.”

Media buyer positions require a great deal of effort to communicate effectively between clients and media outlets as well as strong organizing skills. According to the Handbook site in 2008 there were over 50,000 advertising and public relations services establishments in the United states and about 38 percent of these write copy, prepare artwork, graphics, and other creative work, and then place the resulting ads on television, radio, or the internet, or in periodicals, newspapers, or other advertising media. Geographically, about 19 percent of the firms are concentrated in New York and California.

The Handbook also states that “Competition for jobs will be keen, because the glamour or the industry traditionally attracts more jobseekers than there are job openings. Layoffs are common when accounts are lost, major clients cut budgets, or agencies merge.”

According to the Handbook: “Most employees in advertising and public relations services work in comfortable offices operating in a teamwork environment; however, long hours, including evenings and weekends, are common. Work in advertising and public relations is fast-paced and exciting, but it also can be stressful. Being creative on a tight schedule can be emotionally draining. Workers, whose services are billed hourly, such as advertising consultants and public relations specialists, are often under pressure to manage their time carefully. In addition, frequent meetings with clients and media representatives may involve substantial travel.”

The Handbook site indicates that a bachelor’s degree is required for most entry-level professional and managerial positions in advertising and public relations. Most people enter the advertising industry in the account management or media department. An internship during school is advantageous for those seeking employment. Coursework in marketing, psychology, accounting, statistics, and creative design are good preparation for entrance into the field. Media buyer entry-level positions may be titled assistant media buyer and most often require a bachelor’s degree with a major in marketing or advertising. In 2008 nonsupervisory workers in advertising earned about $38,844 per year. The Handbook states that many workers receive additional compensation including profit sharing, stock ownership, or performance-based bonuses.

Product Development Manager

In order to understand these types of marketing careers a review of some jobs listed on the internet provides useful information. For example the Verizon website on May 17, 2011 lists a position: product development manager Verizon Developer Community. Following is selected information from the site:

“Responsibilities: The product development manager is responsible for supporting the Verizon Developer Community with an emphasis on identifying opportunities in application innovation. As part of a larger effort to engage with application developers in Silicon Valley, this manager will identify innovative applications and services for both customers and developers, leveraging resources at the Application Innovation Center.

Product Development:

  • VDC/V CAST apps representative in Silicon Valley, position located at Application Innovation Center.
  • Gather and conduct market research, analyze data, assess competition, and assist in development of products that are in line with the overall VDC ecosystem and application development strategy.
  • Identify market trends and define market and customer requirements to initiate new product development or product enhancement initiatives. Build business case to ensure successful prioritization of these initiatives.
  • Partner with the appropriate distribution teams (Direct/Indirect, Consumer/Business, Strategic Alliances, etc.) to support the distribution of products to market.
  • Work with product development teams and other technical groups to ensure timely delivery of new developments.
  • Plan and execute market trials, prototyping and early adoption, friendly user trials, and beta programs
  • Enlist developers to work with business, product, and technical development resources at the Application Innovation Center, leveraging lab, network, marketing, and engineering resources.
  • Evangelize the VDC and V CAST apps in the West Area.
  • Rationalize portfolios to optimize investments across product lines.


  • BA/BS degree required. MBA/MS/MA degree preferred.
  • 5+ years project and program management experience.
  • Minimum 5 years wireless experience.
  • Experience in operationalizing new product launches.
  • Experience in the design of business strategy.
  • Excellent organization and time management skills.
  • Extremely effective working across multiple levels of management.
  • Demonstrated ability to work with senior management to define and manage the scope, strategy, requirements and implementation of new product, pricing, and promotional initiatives.
  • Demonstrated exceptional influence skills, and able to influence individuals across all functional organizations and at all levels.
  • Highly collaborative and able to produce high-quality results in high-pressure situations and in a dynamic environment.
  • Demonstrated ability to work issues to successful resolution.
  • Strong negotiating, listening, and superior interpersonal skills
  • Experience in creating executive presentations.

Although the Verizon site does not list the salary range, a quick review of other product development manager positions indicates that salaries may range from $90,000 to $140,000 per year. This type of position usually includes benefits and may often include the potential for bonuses. According to the United States Department of Labor; Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2011 Occupational Outlook Handbook, there will be keen competition for managerial jobs in marketing fields. “In particular, employers will seek those who have the skills to conduct new types of advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales campaigns involving new media, particularly the internet.”

Market Analyst

These marketing careers are highly analytical. According to the section of the United States Department of Labor; Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2011 Occupational Outlook Handbook titled Market and Survey Researchers: “Market and survey researchers gather information about what people think. Market research analysts help companies understand what types of products people want, determine who will buy them and at what price. Gathering statistical data on competitors and examining prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution, they analyze data on past sales to predict future sales. Market research analysts devise methods and procedures for obtaining the data they need by designing surveys to assess consumer preferences. While a majority of surveys are conducted through the internet and telephone, other methods may include focus group discussions, mail responses, or setting up booths in public places, such as shopping malls, for example. Trained interviewers usually conduct the surveys under a market research analyst’s direction.”

The Handbook says that most market analysts have a structured work schedule and that they may often work alone, writing reports and preparing statistical charts. Like others employed in fields in marketing, market analysts may work under tight schedules and deadline pressure with resulting overtime. Some travel may be required.

According to the Handbook, “A bachelor’s degree is the minimum educational requirement for many market and survey research jobs. However, a master’s degree is usually required for more technical positions. In addition to completing courses in business, marketing, and consumer behavior, prospective market and survey researchers should take social science courses, including economics, psychology, and sociology. Because of the importance of quantitative skills to market and survey researchers, courses in mathematics, statistics, sampling theory and survey design, and computer science are extremely helpful. Market and survey researchers often earn advanced degrees in business administration, marketing, statistics, communications, or other closely related disciplines.”

The Handbook also indicates that it is critical for market analysts to be detail-oriented, patient, persistent, and yet have good communication skills and be able to work well with others. The Handbook states that most market analysts were employed in management, scientific, and technical consulting industries; management of companies and enterprises; computer systems design and related services; insurance carriers; and other professional, scientific, and technical services. It also states that employment growth of market and survey researchers is projected to be much faster than average over the next 10 years.

According to the Handbook: “Bachelor’s degree holders may face competition for market research jobs, as many positions, especially technical ones, require a master’s or doctoral degree. Among bachelor’s degree holders, those with good quantitative skills, including a strong background in mathematics, statistics, survey design, and computer science will have the best opportunities. Those with a background in consumer behavior or an undergraduate degree in a social science—psychology, sociology, or economics—may qualify for less technical positions, such as a public opinion researcher. Obtaining the Professional Researcher Certification also can be important as it demonstrates competence and professionalism among potential candidates. Overall, job opportunities should be best for jobseekers with a master’s or PhD degree in marketing or a related field and with strong quantitative skills.”

The Handbook also indicates that median annual wages of market research analysts in 2008 were $61,070. These positions will often include benefits such as healthcare insurance and retirement.